Appendix A

[1] Robert T. Michael, et al., Sex in America: a Definitive Survey,p. 172.  Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1994.

[2] Lynn Scherr, “Lesbian Leader Loves a Man,” ABCNews.com, April 17, 1998.

[3] “Former Lesbian Anne Heche Engaged to Cameraman,” ABCNews.com, June 1, 2001 (emphasis added), reprinted at www.gaywired.com/index.cfm?linkPage=/storydetail.cf m&Section=68&ID=5304.

[4] “The Facts: Anne Heche,” Eonline.msn, April 1, 2002, www.eonline.com/Facts/People/Bio/0,128,31319,00.html.

[5] “Sinead O’Connor to Marry a Man,” Reuters, June 27, 2000, www.q.co.za/2001.2001.06.27-sinead.html.

[6] “Sinead Drops out of Wotapalava Tour,” JAM! Music, May 31, 2001, www.canoe.ca/JamMusicArtistsO/oconnor_ sinead.html.

[7] John Stoltenberg, “Living with Andrea Dworkin,” Lambda Book Report, May/June 1994, reprinted at www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/dworkin/LivingWithAnd rea.html.

[8] Julie Robotham, “Safe sex by arrangement as gay men reject condoms,” The Sydney Morning Herald, June 7, 2001. Data source: “2000 Male Out Survey,” National Centre in HIV Social Research, Australia.

[9] Michael, et al., p. 172.

[10] Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, et al., The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States, p. 293, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994; Michael, et al., p. 176; David Forman and Clair Chilvers, “Sexual Behavior of Young and Middle-Aged Men in England and Wales,” British Medical Journal, 298: 1137-1142 (1989); and Gary Remafedi, et al., “Demography of Sexual Orientation in Adolescents,” Pediatrics, 89: 714-721 (1992).

Change Therapy

[1]Throckmorton W. “Attempts to Modify Sexual Orientation: A Review of Outcome Literature and Ethical Issues.” Journal of Mental Health. Vol 20, October 1998 (pp.283-304). http://www.narth.com/docs/attemptstomodify.html (accessed 3/18/10).

Childhood Development

[1] Hallman, J. The Heart of Female Same-Sex Attraction: A Comprehensive Counseling Resource. Intervarsity Press, 2008.

Female Homosexual Behavior

[1] Michael, et al., p. 176 (“about 1.4 percent of women said they thought of themselves as homosexual or bisexual and about 2.8% of the men identified themselves in this way”).

[2] See Appendix A.

[3] Skinner, et al., Abstract; Ferris, et al. p. 581; James Price, et al., p. 90; see Appendix A.

[4] Katherine Fethers, et al., “Sexually transmitted infections and risk behaviours in women who have sex with women,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, 76(5): 345-349, p. 348 (2000).

[5] Ibid., p. 347.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid., p. 348.

[9] Ibid., p. 347, Table 1; Susan D. Cochran, et al., “Cancer- Related Risk Indicators and Preventive Screening Behaviors Among Lesbians and Bisexual Women,” American Journal of Public Health, 91(4): 591-597 (April 2001); Juliet Richters, Sara Lubowitz, et al., “HIV risks among women in contact with Sydney’s gay and lesbian community,” Venereology, 11(3): 35-38 (1998); Juliet Richters, Sarah Bergin, et al., “Women in Contact with the Gay and Lesbian Community: Sydney Women and Sexual Health Survey 1996 and 1998,” National Centre in HIV Social Research, University of New South Wales, 1999.

[10] Fethers, et al., p. 347 and Table 1.

[11] Barbara Berger, Shelley Kolton, et al., “Bacterial vaginosis in lesbians: a sexually transmitted disease,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, 21: 1402-1405 (1995).

[12] E. H. Koumans, et al., “Preventing adverse sequelae of Bacterial Vaginosis: a Public Health Program and Research Agenda,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 28(5): 292-297 (May 2001); R. L. Sweet, “Gynecologic Conditions and Bacterial Vaginosis: Implications for the Non-Pregnant Patient,” Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 8(3): 184-190 (2000).

[13] Kathleen M. Morrow, Ph.D., et al., “Sexual Risk in Lesbians and Bisexual Women,” Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 4(4): 159-165, p. 161 (2000).

[14] Ibid., p. 159.

Health Risks

[1] Becky Birtha, “Gay Parents and the Adoption Option,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, March 04, 2002, ; Grant Pick, “Make Room for Daddy – and Poppa,” The Chicago Tribune Internet Edition, March 24, 2002.

[2] Ellen C. Perrin, et al., “Technical Report: Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents,” Pediatrics, 109(2): 341-344 (2002).

Homosexuality

[1] Historic Gay Advocate Now Believes Change is Possible, National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality, 2001:May. http://www.narth.com/docs/spitzer3.html (accessed 3/18/10).

[2] National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH) Scientific Advisory Committee (2009). What Research Shows: NARTH’s Response to the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Claims on Homosexuality. Journal of Human Sexuality, 1, 1-128.: cf. http://www.narth.com/docs/journalsummary.html (accessed 3/18/10) for a summary of this peer-reviewed monograph.

[3] Rekers GA, Oram KB. Child and adolescent therapy for precursors to adulthood homosexual tendancies. Chapter 7 in Julie Harren Hamilton and Philip J. Henry (Eds.), Handbook of Therapy for Unwanted Homosexual Attractions: A Guide for Treatment. Palm Beach, FL: Xulon Press, 2009, pages 247-320.

Homosexuality 101

[1]Anastasia, T. (1995). New evidence of a gay gene. Time 146, 43.

[2]Byrd, A. D., & Nicolosi, J (2002). A meta-analytic review of the treatment of homosexuality. Psychological Reports, 90, 1139-1152.

[3]LeVay, S. (1996). Queer Science, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

[4]Nicolosi, J. & Nicolosi, L. A. (2001). Preventing homosexuality in today’s youth. InterVarsity Press.

[5]Satinover, J. (1996). The gay gene? The Journal of Human Sexuality.

[6]Spitzer, R. L. (2003). Can some gay men and lesbians change their sexual orientation? 200 participants reporting a change from homosexual to heterosexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32:5, 403-417.

[7]Whitehead, N. & Whitehead, B. (1999). My genes made me do it: A scientific look at sexual orientation. Lafayette, LA: Huntington House Publishers.

[8]Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 32, No. 5, October 2003, pp. 403-417

Life Span

[1]R. S. Hogg, S. A. Strathdee, et al., “Modeling the Impact of HIV Disease on Mortality in Gay and Bisexual Men,” International Journal of Epidemiology, 26(3): 657-661, p. 659 (1997). Death as the result of HIV infection has dropped significantly since 1996. “Life Expectancy Hits New High in 2000; Mortality Declines for Several Leading Causes of Death,” CDC News Release, October 10, 2001, www.cdc.gov/nchs/releases/01news/mort2k.htm. Nevertheless, it remains a significant factor in shortened life expectancy for homosexual practitioners.

[2]Press Release, Smoking costs nation $150 billion each year in health costs, lost productivity, CDC, Office of Communication, April 12, 2002, www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/ pressrel/r020412.htm.

[3]Hogg, et al., p. 660.

[4]Ibid.

[5]”Hepatitis A vaccination of men who have sex with men — Atlanta, Georgia, 1996-1997,” Morbidity and Mortality Report, CDC, 47(34): 708-711 (September 4, 1998).

Male Homosexual Behavior

[1] The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA) recently published a press release entitled “Ten Things Gay Men Should Discuss with Their Health Care Providers” (July 17, 2002), (accessed 3/18/10). The list includes: HIV/AIDS (Safe Sex), Substance Use, Depression/ Anxiety, Hepatitis Immunization, STDs, Prostate/ Testicular/Colon Cancer, Alcohol, Tobacco, Fitness and Anal Papilloma.

[2] R. R. Wilcox, “Sexual Behaviour and Sexually Transmitted Disease Patterns in Male Homosexuals,” British Journal of Venereal Diseases, 57(3): 167-169, 167 (1981).

[3] Robert T. Michael, et al., Sex in America: a Definitive Survey, pp. 140-141, Table 11, Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1994; Rotello, pp. 75-76.

[4] Rotello, p. 92.

[5] Jon M. Richards, J. Michael Bedford, and Steven S. Witkin, “Rectal Insemination Modifies Immune Responses in Rabbits,” Science, 27(224): 390-392 (1984).

[6] S. S. Witkin and J. Sonnabend, “Immune Responses to Spermatozoa in Homosexual Men,” Fertility and Sterility, 39(3): 337-342, pp. 340-341 (1983).

[7] Anne Rompalo, “Sexually Transmitted Causes of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Homosexual Men,” Medical Clinics of North America, 74(6): 1633-1645 (November 1990); “Anal Health for Men and Women,” LGBTHealthChannel, http://lgbthealth.healthcommunities.com/analhealth/index.shtml (accessed 3/18/10); “Safer Sex (MSM) for Men who Have Sex with Men,” LGBTHealthChannel, www.gayhealthchannel.com/stdmsm/ (accessed 3/18/10).

[8] “Resurgent Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Men Who Have Sex With Men — King County, Washington, 1997-1999,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC, 48(35): 773-777 (September 10, 1999). [26] Heredia, “Big spike in cases of syphilis in S.F.: Gay, bisexual men affected most.”

[9] “Changing Patterns of Groups at High Risk for Hepatitis B in the United States,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC, 37(28): 429-432, p. 437 (July 22, 1988). Hepatitis B and C are viral diseases of the liver.

[10]Centers for Disease Control. CDC Analysis Provides New Look at Disproportionate Impact of HIV and Syphilis among U.S. Gay and Bisexual Men. Press Release. Wednesday, March 10, 2010.

[11] Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, et al., The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States, p. 293, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994; Michael, et al., p. 176; David Forman and Clair Chilvers, “Sexual Behavior of Young and Middle-Aged Men in England and Wales,” British Medical Journal, 298: 1137-1142 (1989); and Gary Remafedi, et al., “Demography of Sexual Orientation in Adolescents,” Pediatrics, 89: 714-721 (1992). See appendix A.

[12] Mads Melbye, Charles Rabkin, et al., “Changing patterns of anal cancer incidence in the United States, 1940-1989,” American Journal of Epidemiology, 139: 772-780, p. 779, Table 2 (1994).

[13] James Goedert, et al., for the AIDS-Cancer Match Study Group, “Spectrum of AIDS-associated malignant disorders,” The Lancet, 351: 1833-1839, p. 1836 (June 20, 1998).

[14] “Anal Health for Men and Women,” LGBTHealthChannel, http://lgbthealth.healthcommunities.com/analhealth/index.shtml (accessed 3/18/10); J. E. Barone, et al., “Management of Foreign Bodies and Trauma of the Rectum,” Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, 156(4): 453-457 (April 1983).

[15] Henry Kazal, et al., “The gay bowel syndrome: Clinicopathologic correlation in 260 cases,” Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, 6(2): 184-192 (1976).

[16] Glen E. Hastings and Richard Weber, “Use of the term ‘Gay Bowel Syndrome,'” reply to a letter to the editor, American Family Physician, 49(3): 582 (1994).

[17] Ibid.; E. K. Markell, et al., “Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Homosexual Men at a San Francisco Health Fair,” Western Journal of Medicine, 139(2): 177-178 (August, 1983).

[18] “Hepatitis A among Homosexual Men — United States, Canada, and Australia,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC, 41(09): 155, 161-164 (March 06, 1992).

[19] Rompalo, p. 1640.

[20] H. Naher, B. Lenhard, et al., “Detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in anal scrapings from HIV-positive homosexual men,” Archives of Dermatological Research, 287(6): 608- 611, Abstract (1995).

[21] B. L. Carlson, N. J. Fiumara, et al., “Isolation of Neisseria meningitidis from anogenital specimens from homosexual men,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 7(2): 71-73 (April 1980).

[22] P. Paulet and G. Stoffels, “Maladies anorectales sexuellement transmissibles” [“Sexually-Transmissible Anorectal Diseases”], Revue Medicale Bruxelles, 10(8): 327-334, Abstract (October 10, 1989).

[23] “Hepatitis A among Homosexual Men — United States, Canada, and Australia,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC, 41(09): 155, 161-164 (March 06, 1992).

[24] Ibid.

[25] C. M. Thorpe and G. T. Keutsch, “Enteric bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter,” in K. K. Holmes, P. A. Mardh, et al., (Eds.), Sexually Transmitted Diseases (3rd edition), p. 549, New York: McGraw-Hill Health Professionals Division, 1999.

[26] Tim Bonfield, “Typhoid traced to sex encounters,” Cincinnati Enquirer, April 26, 2001; Erin McClam, “Health Officials Document First Sexual Transmission of Typhoid in U.S.,” Associated Press, April 25, 2001. A representative of the Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases at the CDC in Atlanta, Georgia, confirmed this report and provided a link to the AP story on October 4, 2002.

[27] Jeffrey Martin, et al., “Sexual Transmission and the Natural History of Human Herpes Virus 8 Infection,” New England Journal of Medicine, 338(14): 948-954, p. 952 (1998).

[28] Alexandra M. Levine, “Kaposi’s Sarcoma: Far From Gone,” paper presented at 5th International AIDS Malignancy Conference, April 23-25, 2001, Bethesda, Maryland.

[29] “Paraphilias,” Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, p. 576, Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Karla Jay and Allen Young, The Gay Report: Lesbians and Gay Men Speak Out About Sexual Experiences and Lifestyles, pp. 554-555, New York: Summit Books (1979).

[30] Jay and Young, pp. 554-555.

[31] Sade, Marquis de, Justine or Good Conduct Well Chastised (1791), New York: Grove Press (1965).

[32] Michigan Rope internet advertisement for “Bondage and Beyond,” which was scheduled for February 9-10, 2002, near Detroit, Michigan. The explicit nature of the advertisement was changed following unexpected publicity, and the hotel where the conference was scheduled ultimately canceled it. Marsha Low, “Hotel Ties Noose Around 2-Day Bondage Meeting,” Detroit Free Press, January 25, 2002.

[33] Allyson Smith, “Ramada to host ‘Vicious Valentine’ Event,” WorldNet Daily, February 14, 2002, http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=26453 (accessed 3/18/10); “Vicious Valentine 5 Celebrates Mardi Gras, Feb 15-17, 2002,” www.leatherquest.com/events/vv2002.htm.

[34] The sadistic rape of 13-year-old Jesse Dirkhising on September 26, 1999, left him dead. See Andrew Sullivan, “The Death of Jesse Dirkhising,” The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 1, 2001.

[35] Jay and Young, pp. 554-555.

[36] Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, “MSM: Clinician’s Guide to Incorporating Sexual Risk Assessment in Routine Visits,” http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/psych-training/seminars/msm_assessment.pdf (accessed 3/18/10).

[37] S. Bygdeman, “Gonorrhea in men with homosexual contacts. Serogroups of isolated gonococcal strains related to antibiotic susceptibility, site of infection, and symptoms,” British Journal of Venereal Diseases, 57(5): 320-324, Abstract (October 1981).

[38] As of January 1, 1999, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimated the cancer prevalence in the United States to be 8.9 million. “Estimated US Cancer Prevalence Counts: Who Are Our Cancer Survivors in the US?,” Cancer Control & Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, April 2002. In 1999, the American Cancer Society (ACS) estimated 1,221,800 new cancer cases in the US and an estimated 563,100 cancer related deaths, “Cancer Facts and Figures 1999,” p. 4, American Cancer Society, Inc., 1999; in 2000, the ACS estimated 1,220,100 new cancer cases and 552,200 deaths from cancer, “Cancer Facts and Figures 2000,” p. 4, American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000; in 2001, the ACS estimated a total number of 1,268,000 new cases of cancer and 553,400 deaths, “Cancer Facts and Figures 2001,” p. 5, American Cancer Society, Inc., 2001. This results in an estimated growth of 2,041,200 new cancer cases over the past three years and an estimated 10,941,200 people with cancer as of January 1, 2002. In 2001 there were 793,025 reported AIDS cases. “Basic Statistics,” CDC — Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, June 2001.

[39] The federal spending for AIDS research in 2001 was $2,247,000,000, while the spending for cancer research was not even double that at $4,376,400,000. “Funding For Research Areas of Interest,” National Institute of Health, 2002.

[40] Ibid.; “Fast Stats Ato Z: Diabetes,” CDC — National Center for Health Statistics, June 04, 2002; “Fast Stats A to Z: Heart Disease,” CDC — National Center for Health Statistics, June 06, 2002.

Mental Health

[1] For example, Judith Bradford, Caitlin Ryan, and Esther D. Rothblum, “National Lesbian Health Care Survey: Implications for Mental Health Care,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2): 228-242 (1994); Richard C. Pillard, “Sexual orientation and mental disorder,” Psychiatric Annals, 18(1): 52-56 (1988); see also Mubarak S. Dahir, “The Gay Community’s New Epidemic,” Daily News (June 5, 2000).

[2] Katherine A. O’Hanlan, M.D., et al., “Homophobia As a Health Hazard,” Report of the Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, pp. 3, 5; Laura Dean, et al., “Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health: Findings & Concerns,” Journal of the Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, 4(3): 102-151, pp. 102, 116 (2000).

[3] “Netherlands Ends Discrimination in Civil Marriage: Gays to Wed,” Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund Press Release, March 30, 2001.

[4] Theo Sandfort, Ron de Graaf, et al., “Same-sex Sexual Behavior and Psychiatric Disorders,” Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(1): 85-91, p. 89 and Table 2 (January 2001).

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid., p. 89.

[7] Ibid., p. 90 (emphasis added).

[8] Ibid.

[9] Erica Goode, “With Fears Fading, More Gays Spurn Old Preventive Message,” New York Times, August 19, 2001.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid.

[13] “Officials Voice Alarm Over Halt in AIDS Decline,” New York Times, August 14, 2001.

[14] “A uniform definition of a circuit party does not exist, partly because such parties continue to evolve. However, a circuit party tends to be a multi-event weekend that occurs each year at around the same time and in the same town . . . .” Gordon Mansergh, Grant Colfax, et al., “The Circuit Party Men’s Health Survey: Findings and Implications for Gay and Bisexual Men,” American Journal of Public Health, 91(6): 953-958, p. 953 (June 2001).

[15] Ibid., p. 955.

[16] Ibid., p. 956.

[17] Ibid., pp. 956-957, Tables 2 & 3.

[18] Ibid., pp. 956-957.

[19]Ibid., p. 957. The authors’ recommendation was more education.

[19] Julie Robotham, “Safe sex by arrangement as gay men reject condoms,” Sydney Morning Herald, June 7, 2001. Data source: 2000 Male Out Survey, National Centre in HIV Social Research, Australia.

Monogamy

[1]Robert T. Michael, et al., p. 89.

[2]Ibid., p. 101.

[3]Camille Paglia, “I’ll take religion over gay culture,” Salon.com online magazine, June 1998, www.frontpagemag.com/archives/guest_column/ paglia/gayculture.htm.

[4]Gordon Mansergh, Grant Colfax, et al., p. 955.

[5]Joseph Harry, Gay Couples, p. 116, New York: Praeger Books, 1984.

[6]Marcel T. Saghir, M.D. and Eli Robins, M.D., Male and Female Homosexuality: A Comprehensive Investigation, p. 57 Table 4.13, p. 225 Table 12.10, Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1973.

Physical Health

[1] The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA) recently published a press release entitled “Ten Things Gay Men Should Discuss with Their Health Care Providers” (July 17, 2002), (accessed 3/18/10). The list includes: HIV/AIDS (Safe Sex), Substance Use, Depression/ Anxiety, Hepatitis Immunization, STDs, Prostate/ Testicular/Colon Cancer, Alcohol, Tobacco, Fitness and Anal Papilloma.

[2] R. R. Wilcox, “Sexual Behaviour and Sexually Transmitted Disease Patterns in Male Homosexuals,” British Journal of Venereal Diseases, 57(3): 167-169, 167 (1981).

[3] Robert T. Michael, et al., Sex in America: a Definitive Survey, pp. 140-141, Table 11, Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1994; Rotello, pp. 75-76.

[4] Rotello, p. 92.

[5] Jon M. Richards, J. Michael Bedford, and Steven S. Witkin, “Rectal Insemination Modifies Immune Responses in Rabbits,” Science, 27(224): 390-392 (1984).

[6] S. S. Witkin and J. Sonnabend, “Immune Responses to Spermatozoa in Homosexual Men,” Fertility and Sterility, 39(3): 337-342, pp. 340-341 (1983).

[7] Anne Rompalo, “Sexually Transmitted Causes of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Homosexual Men,” Medical Clinics of North America, 74(6): 1633-1645 (November 1990); “Anal Health for Men and Women,” LGBTHealthChannel, http://lgbthealth.healthcommunities.com/analhealth/index.shtml (accessed 3/18/10); “Safer Sex (MSM) for Men who Have Sex with Men,” LGBTHealthChannel, www.gayhealthchannel.com/stdmsm/ (accessed 3/18/10).

[8] “Resurgent Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Men Who Have Sex With Men — King County, Washington, 1997-1999,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC, 48(35): 773-777 (September 10, 1999). [26] Heredia, “Big spike in cases of syphilis in S.F.: Gay, bisexual men affected most.”

[9] “Changing Patterns of Groups at High Risk for Hepatitis B in the United States,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC, 37(28): 429-432, p. 437 (July 22, 1988). Hepatitis B and C are viral diseases of the liver.

[10] Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, et al., The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States, p. 293, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994; Michael, et al., p. 176; David Forman and Clair Chilvers, “Sexual Behavior of Young and Middle-Aged Men in England and Wales,” British Medical Journal, 298: 1137-1142 (1989); and Gary Remafedi, et al., “Demography of Sexual Orientation in Adolescents,” Pediatrics, 89: 714-721 (1992). See appendix A.

[11] Mads Melbye, Charles Rabkin, et al., “Changing patterns of anal cancer incidence in the United States, 1940-1989,” American Journal of Epidemiology, 139: 772-780, p. 779, Table 2 (1994).

[12] James Goedert, et al., for the AIDS-Cancer Match Study Group, “Spectrum of AIDS-associated malignant disorders,” The Lancet, 351: 1833-1839, p. 1836 (June 20, 1998).

[13] “Anal Health for Men and Women,” LGBTHealthChannel, http://lgbthealth.healthcommunities.com/analhealth/index.shtml (accessed 3/18/10); J. E. Barone, et al., “Management of Foreign Bodies and Trauma of the Rectum,” Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, 156(4): 453-457 (April 1983).

[14] Henry Kazal, et al., “The gay bowel syndrome: Clinicopathologic correlation in 260 cases,” Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, 6(2): 184-192 (1976).

[15] Glen E. Hastings and Richard Weber, “Use of the term ‘Gay Bowel Syndrome,'” reply to a letter to the editor, American Family Physician, 49(3): 582 (1994).

[16] Ibid.; E. K. Markell, et al., “Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Homosexual Men at a San Francisco Health Fair,” Western Journal of Medicine, 139(2): 177-178 (August, 1983).

[17] “Hepatitis A among Homosexual Men — United States, Canada, and Australia,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC, 41(09): 155, 161-164 (March 06, 1992).

[18] Rompalo, p. 1640.

[19] H. Naher, B. Lenhard, et al., “Detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in anal scrapings from HIV-positive homosexual men,” Archives of Dermatological Research, 287(6): 608- 611, Abstract (1995).

[20] B. L. Carlson, N. J. Fiumara, et al., “Isolation of Neisseria meningitidis from anogenital specimens from homosexual men,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 7(2): 71-73 (April 1980).

[21] P. Paulet and G. Stoffels, “Maladies anorectales sexuellement transmissibles” [“Sexually-Transmissible Anorectal Diseases”], Revue Medicale Bruxelles, 10(8): 327-334, Abstract (October 10, 1989).

[22] “Hepatitis A among Homosexual Men — United States, Canada, and Australia,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC, 41(09): 155, 161-164 (March 06, 1992).

[23] Ibid.

[24] C. M. Thorpe and G. T. Keutsch, “Enteric bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter,” in K. K. Holmes, P. A. Mardh, et al., (Eds.), Sexually Transmitted Diseases (3rd edition), p. 549, New York: McGraw-Hill Health Professionals Division, 1999.

[25] Tim Bonfield, “Typhoid traced to sex encounters,” Cincinnati Enquirer, April 26, 2001; Erin McClam, “Health Officials Document First Sexual Transmission of Typhoid in U.S.,” Associated Press, April 25, 2001. A representative of the Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases at the CDC in Atlanta, Georgia, confirmed this report and provided a link to the AP story on October 4, 2002.

[26] Jeffrey Martin, et al., “Sexual Transmission and the Natural History of Human Herpes Virus 8 Infection,” New England Journal of Medicine, 338(14): 948-954, p. 952 (1998).

[27] Alexandra M. Levine, “Kaposi’s Sarcoma: Far From Gone,” paper presented at 5th International AIDS Malignancy Conference, April 23-25, 2001, Bethesda, Maryland.

[28] “Paraphilias,” Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, p. 576, Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Karla Jay and Allen Young, The Gay Report: Lesbians and Gay Men Speak Out About Sexual Experiences and Lifestyles, pp. 554-555, New York: Summit Books (1979).

[29] Jay and Young, pp. 554-555.

[30] Sade, Marquis de, Justine or Good Conduct Well Chastised (1791), New York: Grove Press (1965).

[31] Michigan Rope internet advertisement for “Bondage and Beyond,” which was scheduled for February 9-10, 2002, near Detroit, Michigan. The explicit nature of the advertisement was changed following unexpected publicity, and the hotel where the conference was scheduled ultimately canceled it. Marsha Low, “Hotel Ties Noose Around 2-Day Bondage Meeting,” Detroit Free Press, January 25, 2002.

[32] Allyson Smith, “Ramada to host ‘Vicious Valentine’ Event,” WorldNet Daily, February 14, 2002, http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=26453 (accessed 3/18/10); “Vicious Valentine 5 Celebrates Mardi Gras, Feb 15-17, 2002,” www.leatherquest.com/events/vv2002.htm.

[33] The sadistic rape of 13-year-old Jesse Dirkhising on September 26, 1999, left him dead. See Andrew Sullivan, “The Death of Jesse Dirkhising,” The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 1, 2001.

[34] Jay and Young, pp. 554-555.

[35] Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, “MSM: Clinician’s Guide to Incorporating Sexual Risk Assessment in Routine Visits,” http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/psych-training/seminars/msm_assessment.pdf (accessed 3/18/10).

[36] S. Bygdeman, “Gonorrhea in men with homosexual contacts. Serogroups of isolated gonococcal strains related to antibiotic susceptibility, site of infection, and symptoms,” British Journal of Venereal Diseases, 57(5): 320-324, Abstract (October 1981).

[37] As of January 1, 1999, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimated the cancer prevalence in the United States to be 8.9 million. “Estimated US Cancer Prevalence Counts: Who Are Our Cancer Survivors in the US?,” Cancer Control & Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, April 2002. In 1999, the American Cancer Society (ACS) estimated 1,221,800 new cancer cases in the US and an estimated 563,100 cancer related deaths, “Cancer Facts and Figures 1999,” p. 4, American Cancer Society, Inc., 1999; in 2000, the ACS estimated 1,220,100 new cancer cases and 552,200 deaths from cancer, “Cancer Facts and Figures 2000,” p. 4, American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000; in 2001, the ACS estimated a total number of 1,268,000 new cases of cancer and 553,400 deaths, “Cancer Facts and Figures 2001,” p. 5, American Cancer Society, Inc., 2001. This results in an estimated growth of 2,041,200 new cancer cases over the past three years and an estimated 10,941,200 people with cancer as of January 1, 2002. In 2001 there were 793,025 reported AIDS cases. “Basic Statistics,” CDC — Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, June 2001.

[38] The federal spending for AIDS research in 2001 was $2,247,000,000, while the spending for cancer research was not even double that at $4,376,400,000. “Funding For Research Areas of Interest,” National Institute of Health, 2002.

[39] Ibid.; “Fast Stats Ato Z: Diabetes,” CDC — National Center for Health Statistics, June 04, 2002; “Fast Stats A to Z: Heart Disease,” CDC — National Center for Health Statistics, June 06, 2002.

[40]  Gay and Lesbian Medical Association Press Release, “Ten Things Lesbians Should Discuss with Their Health Care Providers” (July 17, 2002), http://www.publichealth.pitt.edu/docs/10things_lesbi.pdf (accessed 3/18/10). The list includes Breast Cancer, Depression/Anxiety, Gynecological Cancer, Fitness, Substance Use, Tobacco, Alcohol, Domestic Violence, Osteoporosis and Heart Health.

[41] Michael, et al., p. 176 (“about 1.4 percent of women said they thought of themselves as homosexual or bisexual and about 2.8% of the men identified themselves in this way”).

[42] See Appendix A.

[43] Skinner, et al., Abstract; Ferris, et al. p. 581; James Price, et al., p. 90; see Appendix A.

[44] Katherine Fethers, et al., “Sexually transmitted infections and risk behaviours in women who have sex with women,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, 76(5): 345-349, p. 348 (2000).

[45] Ibid., p. 347.

[46] Ibid.

[47] Ibid.

[48] Ibid., p. 348.

[49] Ibid., p. 347, Table 1; Susan D. Cochran, et al., “Cancer- Related Risk Indicators and Preventive Screening Behaviors Among Lesbians and Bisexual Women,” American Journal of Public Health, 91(4): 591-597 (April 2001); Juliet Richters, Sara Lubowitz, et al., “HIV risks among women in contact with Sydney’s gay and lesbian community,” Venereology, 11(3): 35-38 (1998); Juliet Richters, Sarah Bergin, et al., “Women in Contact with the Gay and Lesbian Community: Sydney Women and Sexual Health Survey 1996 and 1998,” National Centre in HIV Social Research, University of New South Wales, 1999.

[50] Fethers, et al., p. 347 and Table 1.

[51] Barbara Berger, Shelley Kolton, et al., “Bacterial vaginosis in lesbians: a sexually transmitted disease,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, 21: 1402-1405 (1995).

[52] E. H. Koumans, et al., “Preventing adverse sequelae of Bacterial Vaginosis: a Public Health Program and Research Agenda,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 28(5): 292-297 (May 2001); R. L. Sweet, “Gynecologic Conditions and Bacterial Vaginosis: Implications for the Non-Pregnant Patient,” Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 8(3): 184-190 (2000).

[53] Kathleen M. Morrow, Ph.D., et al., “Sexual Risk in Lesbians and Bisexual Women,” Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 4(4): 159-165, p. 161 (2000).

[54] Ibid., p. 159.

Promiscuity

[1] Gabriel Rotello, <em>Sexual Ecology: AIDS and the Destiny of  Gay  Men</em>, p. 112, New York: Penguin Group, 1998 (quoting gay writer  Michael  Lynch).

[2] Alan P. Bell and Martin S. Weinberg, Homosexualities: A study  of  Diversity Among Men and Women, p. 308, Table 7, New York: Simon and  Schuster,  1978.

[3] Leon McKusick, et al., “Reported Changes in the Sexual Behavior   of Men at Risk for AIDS, San Francisco, 1982-84 — the AIDS Behavioral  Research  Project,” <em>Public Health Reports</em>, 100(6): 622-629, p.  625, Table 1 (November-  December 1985). In 1982 respondents reported an  average of 4.7 <em>new</em> partners  in the prior month; in 1984,  respondents reported an average of 2.5 <em>new</em> partners in the prior  month.

[4] “Increases in Unsafe Sex and Rectal Gonorrhea  among Men Who Have  Sex with Men — San Francisco, California, 1994-1997,”  <em>Mortality and  Morbidity Weekly Report</em>, CDC, 48(03): 45-48, p. 45 (January  29,  1999).

[5] This was evident by the late 80’s and early 90’s. Jeffrey  A.  Kelly, PhD, et al., “Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/ Human  Immunodeficiency  Virus Risk Behavior Among Gay Men in Small Cities,” <em>Archives  of Internal Medicine</em>,  152: 2293-2297, pp. 2295-2296 (November  1992); Donald R. Hoover, et al., “Estimating  the 1978-1990 and Future  Spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Subgroups  of  Homosexual Men,” <em>American Journal of Epidemiology</em>, 134(10):  1190-1205,  p. 1203 (1991).

[6]Woods, et al., Public Policy Regulating Private and Public Space in Gay Bathhouses, JAIDS <em>Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.</em>Vol.32(4). April 2003 (pp 417-423).

[7]Lampinen, Et al., Sexual risk behavior of Canadian participants in the first efficacy trial of a preventive HIV-1 Vaccine. – Canadian Medical Associaitoion CMAJ Vol. 172(4) Feb 2005 (pp 479-83).

[8]Xiridou, et al., The contribution of steady and casual partnerships to the incidence of HIV infection among homosexual men in Amsterdam. AIDS Vol. 17 2003 (pp 1029-1038).

[9] A lesbian pastor made this assertion during a question  and  answer session that followed a presentation the author made on  homosexual  health risks at the Chatauqua Institute in Western New York,  summer 2001.

[10] Paul  Van de Ven, et al., “Facts &amp; Figures: 2000 Male Out  Survey,” p. 20 &amp; Table 20,  monograph published by National Centre  in HIV Social Research Faculty of Arts  and Social Sciences, The  University of New South Wales, February 2001.

[11] Rotello,  pp. 43-46.<em> </em>

[12] Ibid., pp. 165-172.

[13] Hoover, et al., Figure  3.

[14] “Basic Statistics,” CDC — Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, June   2001, www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats.htm. (Nearly 8% (50,066) of men with AIDS  had sex  with men and used intravenous drugs. These men are included in  the 64% figure  (411,933) of 649,186 men who have been diagnosed with  AIDS.)

[15] Figures  from a study presented at the Infectious Diseases  Society of America meeting in  San Francisco and reported by Christopher  Heredia, “Big spike in cases of syphilis  in S.F.: Gay, bisexual men  affected most,” <em>San Francisco Chronicle</em>, October  26, 2001, <a href=”www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/  article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/10/26/MN7489 3.DTL” target=”_blank”>www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/  article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/10/26/MN7489  3.DTL</a> (accessed 3/18/10).

[16] Catherine Hutchinson, et al., “Characteristics of Patients with   Syphilis Attending Baltimore STD Clinics,” <em>Archives of Internal  Medicine</em>,  151: 511-516, p. 513 (1991).

[17] Katherine Fethers, Caron Marks, et al.,  “Sexually transmitted  infections and risk behaviours in women who have sex with  women,” <em>Sexually  Transmitted Infections</em>, 76(5): 345- 349, p. 347 (October  2000).

[18] James Price, et al., “Perceptions of cervical cancer and pap  smear  screening behavior by Women’s Sexual Orientation,” <em>Journal of  Community Health</em>,  21(2): 89-105 (1996); Daron Ferris, et al., “A  Neglected Lesbian Health Concern:  Cervical Neoplasia,” <em>The Journal  of Family Practice</em>, 43(6): 581-584, p.  581 (December 1996); C.  Skinner, J. Stokes, et al., “A Case-Controlled Study of  the Sexual  Health Needs of Lesbians,” <em>Sexually Transmitted Infections</em>,   72(4): 277-280, Abstract (1996).

Quick Facts

[1]Langstrom N, Rahman Q, Carlstrom E, & Lichtenstein P (2008). Genetic and environmental effects on same-sex sexual behavior: A population study of twins in Sweden. Archives of Sexual Behavior, DOI 10.1007/s10508-008-9386-

[2]Santilla P, Sandnabba NK, Harlaar N, Varjonen M, Alanko K, von der Pahlen B. Potential for homosexual response is prevalent and genetic. Biological Psychology, 2008:77,102-105.

[3]Bailey JM, Dunne MP, & Martin NG. Genetic and environmental influences on sexual orientation and its correlates in an Australian twin sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002:78(3), 524-536.

[4]Bearman PS, Bruckner H. Opposite-sex twins and adolescent same-sex attraction. American Journal of Sociology, 2002:107(5), 1179-1205.

[5] Frisch M & Hviid A . Childhood family correlates of heterosexual and homosexual marriages: A national cohort study to two million Danes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2006:35,533-547.

[6] Straunch, B. The Primal Teen-What the New Discoveries About the Teenage Brain Tell Us About Our Kids. Doubleday, 2003.

[7] Byrd, D. “Homosexuality Is Not Hardwired,” Concludes Dr. Francis S.Collins, Head of The Human Genome Project. http://www.narth.com/docs/nothardwired.html (accessed 3/18/10).

Sexual Orientation

[1] Langstrom N, Rahman Q, Carlstrom E, & Lichtenstein P (2008). Genetic and environmental effects on same-sex sexual behavior: A population study of twins in Sweden. Archives of Sexual Behavior, DOI 10.1007/s10508-008-9386-

What You Should Know About Sexual Orientation of Youth as a School Official

[1] Collins F. The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief. New York. Free Press. 2007.p.260 and p.263.

[2] Langstrom, N, Rahman Q, Carlstrom, E, Lichtenstein, P. (2008). Genetic and environmental effects on same-sexual behavior: A population study of twins in Sweden. Archives of Sexual Behavior, DOI 10.1007/s10508-008-9386-1.

[3] Santilla P, Sandnabba NK, Harlaar N, Varjonen M, Alanko K, von der Pahlen B. (2008). Potential for homosexual response is prevalent and genetic. Biological Psychology, 77, 102-105.

[4] Bailey, J.M., Dunne, M.P., & Martin, N.G. (2000). Genetic and environmental influences on sexual
orientation and its correlates in an Australian twin sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
78 (3), 524-536.

[5] Bearman, P.S., & Bruckner, H. (2002). Opposite-sex twins and adolescent same-sex attraction.
American Journal of Sociology, 107 (5), 1179-1205.

[6] Frisch, M. & Hviid, A. (2006). Childhood family correlates of heterosexual and homosexual marriages: A national
cohort study to two million Danes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 533-547.

[7] Remafedi G, Resnick M, Blum R, Harris L. Demography of sexual orientation in adolescents. Pediatrics.
1992.89:714-721.

[8] Urdy, J.R. & Chantala, K. (2005). Risk factors differ according to same-sex and opposite-sex
interest. Journal of Biosocial Science, 37, 481-497.

[9] Silenzio, V.M.B., Pena, J.B., Duberstein, P.R., Cerel, J., & Knox, K.L. (2007). Sexual orientation and risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among adolescents and young adults. American Journal of Public Health, 97 (11), 2017-2019.

[10] Balsam, K.F., Rothblum, E.D., & Beauchaine, T.P. (2005). Victimization over the life span: A comparison of
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73 (3), 477-487.

[11] Nurses Health Study II available at www.gaydata.org.

[12] Hogg, R.S., Strathdee, S.A., Craib, K.J.P., OShaughnessy, M.V., Montaner, J.S.G., & Schechter, M.T. (1997).
Modeling the impact of HIV disease on mortality in gay and bisexual men.

[13] Valanis, B.G., Bowen, D.J., Bassford, T., Whitlock, E., Charney, P., & Carter, R.A. (2000). Sexual Orientation and
health. Archives of Family Medicine, 9, 843-853.

[14] Remafedi G, Farrow JA, Deisher RW, (1991) Risk factors for attempted suicide in gay and bisexual youth.
Pediatrics 87:869-875.

[15] Zucker K, Bradley S. Gender Identity Disorder and Psychosexual Problems in Children and Adolescents, The Guilford Press, New York, NY 10012, 1995 (p. 283).

[16] National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. Report: What Research Shows: NARTH’s
Response to the APA Claims on Homosexuality. For the summary see http://narth.com/docs/journalsummary.html
(accessed 3/3/10).